It is the simplest 4-carbon lactone. It is mainly used as an intermediate in the production of other chemicals, e. GBL has been found in extracts from samples of unadulterated wines.
GBL can be found in cheese flavourings but typically results in a content of 0. The purification takes place with a liquid-gas-phase extraction. In the laboratory, it may also be obtained via the oxidation of tetrahydrofuran THFfor example with aqueous sodium bromate.
As a lactoneGBL is hydrolyzed under basic conditions, for example in a sodium hydroxide solution into sodium gamma -hydroxybutyratethe sodium salt of gamma -hydroxybutyric acid.
In acidic water, a mixture of the lactone and acid forms coexist in an equilibrium. These compounds then may go on to form the polymer poly 4-hydroxybutyrate as well as the dimer 1,6-Dioxecane-2,7-dione. When treated with a non-nucleophilic base, such as lithium diisopropylamideGBL undergoes deprotonation alpha to the carbonyl. The related compound caprolactone can be used to make a polyester in this manner.
Synthesis of GHB from GABA via Sandmeyer Reaction
The ring-opening polymerization of butyrolactone gives polybutyrolactone. The resulting reverts to the monomer by thermal cracking.
Butyrolactone is principally a precursor to other chemicals. Reaction with methylamine gives NMP.
Ammonia gives pyrrolidone. It is also used as a solvent in lotions and some polymers. Butyrolactone, with its wide liquid range, chemical stability and high dielectric constantis used in some batteries but primarily is found in electrolytic capacitors as the organic solvent. In this capacity, it is frequently mixed with a small ratio of ethylene glycol, "" being common, to vary internal resistivity.
GBL is not active in its own right; its mechanism of action stems from its identity as a prodrug of GHB. Because of these pharmacokinetic differences, GBL tends to be more potent and faster-acting than GHB, but has a shorter duration; whereas the related compound 1,4-butanediol 1,4-B tends to be slightly less potent, slower to take effect but longer-acting than GHB.
GBL overdose can cause irrational behaviour, severe sickness, coma and death.Each injection was contingent upon completion of a fixed number or of lever responses. Self-administration was first established with cocaine 0.
GBL 10— GBL and 1,4-BD have abuse liability. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate GHB is currently used therapeutically to treat narcolepsy. Following escalating reports of its recreational abuse, GHB received a dual classification under the Controlled Substances Act in Gamma-butyrolactone GBL and 1,4-butanediol 1,4-BD are GHB pro-drugs used commercially as industrial solvents and for the manufacturing of paints, plastics, textiles and other chemicals.
The widespread and legitimate commercial use of GBL and 1,4-BD makes the control of these compounds difficult. The abuse potential of a drug is influenced by a number of variables including drug availability, the form in which the drug is available, bioavailability, and other pharmacokinetic parameters such as onset and duration of drug effects.
Recreational users of GHB, GBL, and 1,4-BD typically ingest the compounds orally and report feelings of euphoria, relaxation, drowsiness, and disinhibition. However, the range between doses used recreationally and overdose is very narrow.
Adverse effects, such as nausea, vomiting, anxiety, dizziness, agitation, respiratory depression leading to coma, and sometimes death have been reported Galloway et al. Compared to acute administration of GHB, however, GBL and 1,4-BD administration resulted in a faster onset of behavioral effects which were associated with higher maximum concentrations of GHB in plasma and shorter times to maximum concentrations Goodwin et al.
Given that these GHB pro-drug are less regulated and more readily available than GHB, and appear to be more potent with a faster onset of action, they may have greater abuse liability than GHB. Only one other study has examined the reinforcing effects of GBL and 1,4-BD under short-term limited access condition, and results were negative McMahon et al. Individuals who abuse GHB and its pro-drugs report around-the-clock patterns of intake with dosing every 2—3 hours Andresen et al.
Drug access was limited to a maximum of 8 injections per day by a 3-h timeout between each injection.
We previously reported that GHB maintained IV self-administration and functioned as a reinforcer in the majority of baboons using these same procedures Goodwin et al. Comparison of self-injection of drug and vehicle under conditions of h access, with long timeouts between injections hours and long periods of availability weekshas historically provided an accurate assessment of the reinforcing properties of drugs with sedative properties as well as quantitative data for assessment of abuse liability Ator ; Griffiths et al.
The information obtained from these drug self-administration studies can inform considerations regarding possible increased legal control of these compounds, such discussion was a recent topic by the World Health Organization ECDD Five adult male baboons Papio anubis, Primate Imports, New York, NY were surgically prepared with chronically indwelling silastic catheters implanted in either femoral or jugular veins using procedures described in Lukas et al.
The catheters were protected by a vest and tether system described previously Lukas et al. Average body weights for each baboon during the experiment were as follows: DS Tap water from a drinking spout located on the front of the cage was continuously available and water intake was recorded daily. Baboons had ad libitum access to food pellets as described below and were given two pieces of fresh produce and a multivitamin at approximately h each day.
As in our previous studies Goodwin et al. Food was supplemented to maintain general health when drug suppression of food-intake was prolonged 3 days or more. In our experience, baboons will return to working for the preferred banana-flavored pellets and leave biscuits as they become tolerant to suppression of food-maintained behavior produced by the drug.Chemistry is the Science Behind Sustainability — the products, technologies and innovations enabled by the chemical industry are essential to a sustainable future.
ACC is investing in research to improve understanding of how chemicals impact health and the environment. View activities underway by the chemical industry and to help provide resources to address and fight the impacts of COVID This short term measure is needed because essential personnel and resources must be devoted to maintaining production and meeting increased demand for vital chemical products.
A blog of the American Chemistry Council: driving innovation, creating jobs, and enhancing safety. Industrial and Commercial Uses. One significant use of GBL is an intermediate in the manufacture of pyrrolidones, which are widely used industrial chemicals. A second significant use of GBL, because of its strong solvency properties, is in applications such as circuit board cleaning in electronics and high technology industries, and paint stripping.
Other applications include the production of herbicides and as a processing aid in the production of pharmaceuticals. BDO is used as an intermediate in common industrial and commercial products such as polyether diols, urethane polymers and polyester polymers. Many of the polyester polymers are used as automotive components such as car bumpers. BDO is also used as a plasticizer, a carrier solvent in printing inks and a cleaning agent.
The proliferation of illicit drugs in the United States is an issue of national importance. Although BDO is not subject to Federal regulation, some states have designated it as a controlled substance.GBL synthesis
Panel members diligently work with state regulators and enforcement agents including, the DEA and the U. The Panel promotes the education of regulators and industrial users to prevent misuse of the chemical products.
Companies have also individually instituted procedures to prevent diversions of these chemicals and encourage customers to do likewise. As part of their continuing effort to help ensure their products are only used safely and properly, the Panel members support the following practices regarding sales and use of GBL and BDO. Specifically, Panel members:. Promote awareness of applicable DEA and local requirements internally and to customers and distributors to assist in maintaining product security.
Require written confirmation of intended use from customers to help ensure compliance with Federal, state and local requirements. Monitor pending legislation to enable continued availability and responsible use of GBL and BDO for authorized applications.
View our resource center to find press releases, testimonies, infographics and more. The business of chemistry providesskilled, good-paying American jobs.
News View our resource center to find press releases, testimonies, infographics and more. Jobs The business of chemistry providesskilled, good-paying American jobs.Special note: This site is all about harm reduction. We realise that some people will take drugs no matter what advice they are given, so we have reproduced this guide for information purposes only.
It is not medical advice. If you are being coerced into taking drugs, or are in any doubt about taking a substance, our advice is to always refuse. It is sold in the grey market, often as 'alloy cleaner' or 'rust remover' and smells pretty much like you'd expect an industrial solvent to smell like. It is hard to store, requiring a glass bottle or bottle of a certain type of plastic. It will melt through most plastics. Legality: As of DecemberGBL has been classified as a Class C drug, carrying maximum jail terms of two years for possession and 14 years for supply.
Dosage: Generally GBL is sold in bottles of multiples of ml. This is not a dose. You measure out the doses using the pipette that will almost certainly be provided by the salesman. There is no hard and fast rule about dosage, and tolerances vary. For this reason always make sure you're in the company of a 'straight' friend in case things go wrong. Don't take it on your own and make sure you're in a safe environment.
Don't do it at work or anywhere where you might be put at danger. Some users find that 0. Don't drink alcohol. There is a very good reason for starting small, which we will come to soon.
Do not drink it neat straight from the pipette. If it'll clean alloys, it'll not be nice to your teeth, gums, tongue and throat. Most people prefer to mix it with fruit juice in a shot glass.International Hazard. Hazard to Self. Hazard to Others. No information contained in this post should be construed as legal advice from the individual author, nor is it intended to be a substitute for legal counsel on any subject matter.
Super Administrator. List any points of agreement especially if they are not matters of general or widespread agreement. Mention anything you have learned from your target. Only then are you permitted to say so much as a word of rebuttal or criticism. Anatol Rapoport was a Russian-born American mathematical psychologist Not logged in [ Login ]. Back to:. Printable Version.
But I recently came across a synthesis for MG-GHB which is the following: 60 g magnesium hydroxide analytical grade are suspended in ml tap water under stirring. In a stream and under stirring ml butyrolactone are mixed into this suspension.
Then the mixture is heated on a water bath for 6 hours under stirring in a 2-liter-flask. The magnesium hydroxide dissolves practically completely.
The flask is allowed to stand overnight, while contaminants deposit and the solution is decanted without effort from the contaminant deposit. The water clear decantate is initially stirred with ml acetone for 10 minutes.
The colorless sirupy liquid, which now turned more viscous, is mixed again with ml acetone as described above, the acetone is again removed by decanting and the fairly viscous, colorless sirup is left to itself at room temperature for about 2 to 4 hours.
It solidifies to a colorless crystal mass, which is comminuted in a mortar and dried for several hours in air. Yield: g in analytically pure form. Same is taken from the Rhodium archives at Eurowid.
However when following the above steps and when adding the Acetone all I get is a solution which does not dissolve and thus nothing can be decanted My precursors are fine and all of lab grade purity.
Anybody could give me a hint what is going wrong? This was then heated for 1 h at oC. Methanol The filtrate was then mixed with acetone 20 mL and allowed to stand for 10 mins after which time a precipitate had formed. The solvent was decanted and then a further portion of acetone 20 mL was added and the solvent again decanted.
This stage was repeated once more. The product was then allowed to dry for 48 h at room temperature to afford Mg GHB 2. Found: C, The only thing I could not do a quality check is GBL. Cool, date rape drugs! Is it just me or has this forum been turning to a cooking community during last few weeks? It as been, and sort of continue to be. I have no intention to use this stuff for anything else than my own consumption.
Hence my intention to evaluate Maybe somebody can say something about the above synthesis? The funny difference between those 2 synthesis is that the former says that the decanted liquid is supposed to turn into a sirup type stuff after the addition of Acetone.It is a colorless viscous liquid.
It is one of four stable isomers of butanediol.Pornhub realnepali maiju ra ma
In its industrial synthesisacetylene reacts with two equivalents of formaldehyde to form 1,4-butynediol. This type of acetylene-based process is illustrative of what is known as "Reppe chemistry", after German chemist Walter Reppe. Hydrogenation of 1,4-butynediol gives 1,4-butanediol. It is also manufactured on an industrial scale from maleic anhydride in the Davy processwhich is first converted to the methyl maleate ester, then hydrogenated. Other routes are from butadieneallyl acetate and succinic acid.
A biological route to BDO has been commercialized that uses a genetically modified organism.Broken poem
In the presence of phosphoric acid and high temperature, it dehydrates to the important solvent tetrahydrofuran. Inworldwide production was claimed to be billions of lbs consistent with approximately one million metric tons. Almost half of it is dehydrated to tetrahydrofuran to make fibers such as Spandex.Flutter return null widget
This is because the same enzymes that are responsible for metabolizing alcohol also metabolize 1,4-butanediol so there is a strong chance of a dangerous drug interaction. The major psychoactive effects of 1,4-butanediol are because it is metabolized into GHB; however there is a study suggesting that 1,4-butanediol may have potential alcohol-like pharmacological effects that are not due to this conversion.
However, potentiation of ethanol's effects may simply be caused by competition for the alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes with co-administered 1,4-butanediol. The shared metabolic rate-limiting steps thus leads to slowed metabolism and clearance for both compounds including ethanol's known toxic metabolite acetaldehyde. Another study found no effect following intracerebroventricular injection in rats of 1,4-butanediol.
Like GHB1,4-butanediol is only safe in small amounts. Adverse effects in higher doses include nausea, vomiting, dizziness, sedation, vertigo, and potentially death if ingested in large amounts. Anxiolytic effects are diminished and side effects increased when used in combination with alcohol. While 1,4-butanediol is not currently scheduled federally in the United States a number of states have classified 1,4-butanediol as a controlled substance.
In Germany, the drug is not explicitly illegal, but might also be treated as illegal if used as a drug. It is controlled as a Schedule VI precursor in Canada. A toy called " Bindeez " "Aqua Dots" in North America was recalled by the distributor in November because of the presence of 1,4-butanediol. The toy consists of small beads that stick to each other by sprinkling water.It is the simplest 4-carbon lactone.
It is mainly used as an intermediate in the production of other chemicals, e. GBL has been found in extracts from samples of unadulterated wines. GBL can be found in cheese flavourings but typically results in a content of 0. The purification takes place with a liquid-gas-phase extraction. In the laboratory, it may also be obtained via the oxidation of tetrahydrofuran THFfor example with aqueous sodium bromate.
As a lactoneGBL is hydrolyzed under basic conditions, for example in a sodium hydroxide solution into sodium gamma -hydroxybutyratethe sodium salt of gamma -hydroxybutyric acid.
In acidic water, a mixture of the lactone and acid forms coexist in an equilibrium. These compounds then may go on to form the polymer poly 4-hydroxybutyrate as well as the dimer 1,6-Dioxecane-2,7-dione.Downloads chrome
When treated with a non-nucleophilic base, such as lithium diisopropylamideGBL undergoes deprotonation alpha to the carbonyl. The related compound caprolactone can be used to make a polyester in this manner. The ring-opening polymerization of butyrolactone gives polybutyrolactone. The resulting reverts to the monomer by thermal cracking.
Butyrolactone is principally a precursor to other chemicals. Reaction with methylamine gives NMP.Can am lug pattern
Ammonia gives pyrrolidone. It is also used as a solvent in lotions and some polymers.Canone per uso di acque pubbliche
Butyrolactone, with its wide liquid range, chemical stability and high dielectric constantis used in some batteries but primarily is found in electrolytic capacitors as the organic solvent. In this capacity, it is frequently mixed with a small ratio of ethylene glycol, "" being common, to vary internal resistivity. GBL is not active in its own right; its mechanism of action stems from its identity as a prodrug of GHB.
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